People migrate for many different reasons – by necessity, by choice or non-voluntary. In 2017, 258 million people globally migrated for different reasons, such as seeking job or education opportunities, or avoiding conflicts and political instability. In Africa, most people migrate from rural to urban areas, often leaving smallholder farming for opportunities in the cities.
Smallholders generally benefit from agroforestry due to the multitude of benefits this agricultural technique can offer, such as income diversification, improved food security and environmental resilience. Meanwhile, the lack of these benefits and opportunities is often a reason to migrate. So, agroforestry can be used as a tool to reduce migration and provide decent life opportunities in rural areas.
The linkages between migration and agroforestry are poorly understood, but this brief from the Agroforestry Network outlines how they are intertwined – and can affect each-other both positively and negatively.