Globally, 80% of the world’s extreme poor reside in rural regions, and 76% of them engage in agriculture, primarily subsistence farming. They also heavily rely on and work with caring for the bulk of the world’s natural resources. However, while the rural poor and small-scale producers play a key role in agri-food systems and contribute the least to climate change, their livelihoods are among those most affected by it. Social protection is critical to strengthen the capacities of small-scale producers to transition towards more sustainable and diversified livelihoods. This dialogue seeks to strengthen understanding of the role that social protection has on safeguarding inclusiveness of rural populations in climate action.